Online bibliography (Links to open-access articles)

journal articles

Enns, P. K., Youngmin, Y., Comfort, M., Goldman, A. W., Lee, H., Muller, C., Wakefield, S., Wang, E. A., Wildeman, C. (2019) What percentage of Americans have ever had a family member incarcerated?: Evidence from the Family History of Incarceration Survey (FamHIS). Socius, 5: 1-45. doi: 10.1177/2378023119829332

Knittel, A. K., Lambdin, B. H., Comfort, M. L., Kral, A. H., Lorvick, J. (2019) Sexual risk and criminal justice involvement among women who use drugs. AIDS and Behavior.

Tam, C. C., Dauria, E. F., Cook, M. C., Ti, A., Comfort, M., & Tolou-Shams, M. (in press). Justice involvement and girls’ sexual health: Directions for policy and practice. Children and Youth Services Review. doi: 10.1016/j.childyouth.2019.01.009

Comfort, M., McKay, T. E., Landwehr, J. G., Kennedy, E. K., Lindquist, C. H., & Bir, A. (2018) The costs of incarceration for families of prisoners.  International Journal of the Red Cross

Comfort, M., Krieger, K., Landwehr, J. G., McKay, T., Lindquist, C., Feinberg, R., Kennedy, E. K., Bir, A. (2018). Partnerships after prison: Couple relationships during reentry. Journal of Offender Rehabilitation, 57(2), 188-205. DOI: 10.1080/10509674.2018.1441208

Lindquist, C., Steffey, S., Tueller, S., McKay, T., Comfort, M., & Bir, A. (2018). The Multi-Site Family Study on Incarceration, Partnering and Parenting: Program impacts. Journal of Offender Rehabilitation, 57(2), 115-143. DOI: 10.1080/10509674.2018.1441211

Lindquist, C., Steffey, S., McKay, T., Comfort, M., & Bir, A. (2018). The Multi-Site Family Study on Incarceration, Partnering and Parenting: Design and sample. Journal of Offender Rehabilitation, 57(2), 83-95. DOI: 10.1080/10509674.2018.1441210

McKay, T., Comfort, M., Grove, L., Bir, A., & Lindquist, C. (2018) Whose punishment, whose crime? Understanding parenting and partnership in a time of mass incarceration, Journal of Offender Rehabilitation, 57(2), 69-82. DOI: 10.1080/10509674.2017.1294640

McKay, T., Feinberg, R. K., Landwehr, J. G., Payne, J., Comfort, M., Lindquist, C., ... Bir, A. (2018). “Always having hope”: Father–child relationships after reentry from prison. Journal of Offender Rehabilitation, 57(2), 162-187. DOI: 10.1080/10509674.2018.1441206

Ramaswamy, M, Unruh, E, & Comfort, M. (2018) Navigating social networks, resources, and neighborhoods: Facilitators of sexual and reproductive health care use among women released from jail, Women's Reproductive Health, 5(1), 44-58, DOI: 10.1080/23293691.2018.1429373

Lopez, A. M., Comfort, M., Powers, C., Kral, A. H., Lorvick, J. (2018) Structural vulnerability and supplemental security income: Subtle modes of punitive governance within federal social welfare. Human Organization, 77(4), 302-311.

Lorvick, J., Browne, E. N., Lambdin, B. H., & Comfort, M. (2018). Polydrug use patterns, risk behavior, and unmet healthcare need in a community-based sample of women who use cocaine, heroin, or methamphetamine. Addictive Behaviors, 85(Oct), 94-99.

Conroy, A. A., McKenna, S. A., Comfort, M. L., Darbes, L. A., Tan, J. Y., Mkandawire, J. (2018). Marital infidelity, food insecurity, and couple instability: A web of challenges for dyadic coordination around antiretroviral therapy. Social Science & Medicine, 214(Oct), 110-117.

Lambdin, B. H., Comfort, M., Kral, A. H., Lorvick, J. (2018) Accumulation of jail incarceration and hardship, health status, and unmet health care need among women who use drugs, Women’s Health, 28(5), 470-475.

Kral, A. H., Lambdin, B. H., Comfort, M., Powers, C., Cheng, H., Lopez, A. M., Murdoch, R.O., Neilands, T..B., & Lorvick, J. (2018). A strengths-based case management intervention to reduce HIV viral load among people who use drugs. AIDS and Behavior, 22(1): 146-153.

Lorvick, J., Comfort, M., Kral, A. H., & Lambdin, B. H. (2018). Exploring lifetime accumulation of criminal justice involvement and associated health and social outcomes in a community-based sample of women who use drugs. Journal of Urban Health, 95(4): 584-593. .

Knittel, A., Ti, A., Schear, S., & Comfort, M. (2017). Evidence-based recommendations to improve reproductive healthcare for incarcerated women. International Journal of Prisoner Health, 13(3-4), 200-206. DOI: 10.1108/IJPH-07-2016-0031

Van Dorn, R. A., Desmarais, S. L., Rade, C. B., Burris, E. N., Cuddeback, G. S., Johnson, K. L., ... Mueser, K. T. (2017). Jail-to-community treatment continuum for adults with co-occurring substance use and mental disorders: study protocol for a pilot randomized controlled trial. Trials, 18(1), 365. DOI: 10.1186/s13063-017-2088-z

Lambdin, B. H., Kral, A. H., Comfort, M., Lopez, A. M., & Lorvick, J. (2017). Associations of criminal justice and substance use treatment involvement with HIV/HCV testing and the HIV treatment cascade among people who use drugs in Oakland, California. Addiction Science & Clinical Practice, 12(1), 13. DOI: 10.1186/s13722-017-0078-9

Raymond-Flesch M, Auerwald C, McGlone L, Comfort M, Minnis A. (2017). Building social capital to promote adolescent wellbeing: a qualitative study with teens in a Latino agricultural community. BMC Public Health 17(1): 177.

Powers, C., Comfort, M., Lopez, A. M., Kral, A. H., Murdoch, R. O., & Lorvick, J. (2017). Addressing structural barriers to HIV care among triply diagnosed adults: Project Bridge Oakland. Health & Social Work, 42(2), e53.

Comfort, M. (2016). “A twenty-hour-a-day job”: The impact of frequent low-level criminal justice involvement on family life. The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 665(1), 63–79.

McKay, T., Comfort, M., Lindquist, C., & Bir, A. (2016). If family matters: Supporting family relationships during incarceration and reentry. Criminology & Public Policy, 15(2), 529–542.

Lorvick, J., Comfort, M. L., Krebs, C. P., & Kral, A. (2015). Health service use and social vulnerability in a community-based sample of women on probation and parole. Health & Justice, 3(13). doi:10.1186/s40352-015-0024-4

Comfort, M., Lopez, A. M., Powers, C., Kral, A. H., & Lorvick, J. (2015). How institutions deprive: Ethnography, social work, and interventionist ethics among the hypermarginalized. RSF: The Russell Sage Journal of the Social Sciences, 1(1): 100–119. doi:10.7758/RSF.2015.1.1.06 (open access, no PMCID needed)

Cooper, H., Caruso, B., Barham, T., Embry, V., Dauria, E., Clark, C., & Comfort, M. (2015). Partner incarceration and African-American women's sexual relationships and risk: A longitudinal qualitative study. Journal of Urban Health, 92, 527–547. PMCID: PMC4456473. doi:10.1007/s11524-015-9941-8

Gamarel, K. E., Comfort, M., Wood, T., Neilands, T. B., & Johnson, M. O. (2015). A qualitative analyses of male couples’ coping with HIV: Disentangling the “we.” Journal of Health Psychology. Advance online publication. PMID: 25721454. doi:10.1177/1359105315571975

Howell, B. A., Guydish, J., Kral, A. H., & Comfort, M. (2015). Prevalence and factors associated with smoking tobacco among men recently released from prison in California: A cross-sectional study. Addictive Behaviors, 50, 157–160. PMCID: PMC4535991. doi:10.1016/j.addbeh.2015.06.017

Comfort, M., Reznick, O., Dilworth, S. E., Binson, D., Darbes, L. A., & Neilands, T. B. (2014). Sexual HIV risk among male parolees and their female partners: The Relate Project. Journal of Health Disparities Research and Practice, 7 (special issue 6), 42-69. PMCID: PMC4308977.

Cooper, H. L. F., Clark, C. D., Barham, T., Embry, V., Caruso, B., & Comfort, M. (2014). “He was the story of my drug use life”: A longitudinal qualitative study of the impact of partner incarceration on substance misuse patterns among African-American women. Substance Use and Misuse, 49(1–2), 176–188. PMID: 23964987. doi:10.3109/10826084.2013.824474

Frank, J. W., Wang, E. A., Nunez-Smith, M., Lee, H., & Comfort, M. (2014). Discrimination based on criminal record and healthcare utilization among men recently released from prison: A descriptive study. Health & Justice, 2(6). PMCID: PMC4308970. doi:10.1186/2194-7899-2-6

Knight, K. R., Lopez, A. M., Comfort, M. L., Shumway, M., Cohen, J., Jennifer, C., & Riley, E. D. (2014). Single room occupancy (SRO) hotels as mental health risk environments among impoverished women: The intersection of policy, drug use, trauma, and urban space. International Journal of Drug Policy, 25(3), 556-561. PMCID: PMC4014526. doi:10.1016/j.drugpo.2013.10.011

Lee, H., Porter, L., & Comfort, M. (2014). Consequences of family member incarceration: Impacts on civic participation and perceptions of the legitimacy and fairness of government. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 651, 44–73. PMCID: PMC4501034. doi:10.1177/0002716213502920

Wenger, L. D., Lopez, A. M., Comfort, M., & Kral, A.H. (2014). The phenomenon of low-frequency heroin injection among street-based urban poor: Drug user strategies and contexts of use. International Journal of Drug Policy, 25, 471–479. PMCID: PMC4071159. doi:10.1016/j.drugpo.2014.02.015

Cocohoba, J., Comfort, M., Kianfar, H., & Johnson, M. (2013). A qualitative study examining HIV antiretroviral adherence counseling and support in community pharmacies. Journal of Managed Care Pharmacy, 19(6), 454–460. PMCID: PMC3988691.

Mahoney, M., Bien, M., & Comfort, M. (2013). Adaptation of an evidence-based HIV prevention intervention for women with incarcerated partners: Expanding to community settings. AIDS Education and Prevention, 25(1), 1–13. (Not NIH funded; no PMCID needed.) doi:10.1521/aeap.2013.25.1.1

Saberi, P., Comfort, M., Sheon, N., & Johnson, M. (2013). Qualitative study of the quality of sleep in marginalized individuals living with HIV. Patient Preference and Adherence, 7, 499–507. Free full text available online. doi:10.2147/PPA.S44595

Turney, K., Lee, H., & Comfort, M. (2013). Discrimination and psychological distress among recently released male prisoners. American Journal of Men’s Health, 7, 482–493. PMCID: PMC3862650. doi:10.1177/1557988313484056

Wildeman, C., Lee, H., & Comfort, M. (2013). A new vulnerable population? The health of female partners of men recently released from prison. Women’s Health Issues, 26(3), 335–340. PMCID: PMC3862647.doi:10.1016/j.whi.2013.07.006

Comfort, M. (2012). “It was basically college to us”: Poverty, prison, and emerging adulthood. Journal of Poverty, 16, 308–322. PMCID: PMC3433080. Brazilian translation published as Comfort, M. (2016). “Ela foi basicamente a faculdade para nós”: pobreza, prisão e ingress na idade adulta. Discursos Sediciosos: Crime, Direito e Sociedade, 20(23/24): 379-391.

Johnson, M. O., Dilworth, S. E., Taylor, J. M., Darbes, L. D., Comfort, M. L., & Neilands, T. B. (2012). Primary relationships, HIV treatment adherence, and virologic control. AIDS & Behavior, 16(6), 1511–1521. PMCID: PMC3607313.

Saberi, P., Comfort, M., & Johnson, M. O. (2012). The relationship between daily organization and adherence to antiretroviral therapy: A qualitative perspective. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 61(1), e3–e6. PMCID: PMC3427530.

Saberi, P., Gamarel, K., Neilands, T., Comfort, M., Sheon, N., Darbes, L., & Johnson, M. O. (2012). Ambiguity, ambivalence, and apprehensions of taking PrEP: A mixed methods study. PLoS ONE, 7(11): e50061. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0050061. PMCID: PMC3498189.

Comfort, M., Nurse, A., McKay, T., & Kramer, K. (2011). Taking children into account: Addressing intergenerational effects of parental incarceration. Criminology & Public Policy, 10(3), 839–850. (Not NIH funded; no PMCID needed.)

Kramer, K., & Comfort, M. (2011). Considerations in HIV prevention for women affected by the criminal justice system. Women’s Health Issues, 21(6S), S272–S277. PMCID: PMC3203344.

Wilson, E., Pant, S. B., Comfort, M., & Ekstrand, M. (2011). Stigma and HIV risk among Metis in Nepal. Culture, Health, and Sexuality, 13(3), 253–266. PMCID: PMC3030668.

Reznick, O. G., Comfort, M., McCartney, K., & Neilands, T. B. (2010). Effectiveness of an HIV prevention program for women visiting their incarcerated partners: The HOME Project. AIDS & Behavior, 15(2), 365–375. PMCID: PMC3032899.

Weiser, S. D., Neilands, T. B., Comfort, M. L., Dilworth, S., Cohen, J., Tulsky, J. P., et al. (2009). Correlates of incarceration vary by sex among homeless and marginally housed individuals in San Francisco. American Journal of Public Health, 99(8), 1459–1463. PMCID: PMC2707486.

Grinstead, O., Comfort, M. L., McCartney, K., Koester, K., & Neilands, T. B. (2008). Bringing it HOME: Design and implementation of an HIV/STD intervention for women visiting incarcerated men. AIDS Education and Prevention, 20(4), 285–300. PMCID: PMC18673062.

Comfort, M. (2007). ‘C’est plein de mecs bien en taule!’: Incarcération de masse aux États-Unis et ambivalence des épouses. (‘It’s a lot of good men behind walls!’: Mass incarceration in the United States and the ambivalence of partners.) Actes de la Recherche en Sciences Sociales, 169, 22–47. Portuguese translation published as Comfort, M. (2008), ‘Tanto bom homem atrás das grades!’: O encarceramento maciço e a transformação das relações amorosas nos Estados Unidos. Aquém e Além da Prisão, Manuela Ivone Cunha (organizadora). Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia, 125–176.

Comfort, M. (2007). Punishment beyond the legal offender. Annual Review of Law and Social Science, 3, 271–296. Brazilian translation published as (2010) A punição além do infrator legal. Discursos Sediciosos: Crime, Direito, e Sociedade, 15(17–18), 175–204.

Comfort, M. (2007). ‘Partilhamos tudo o que podemos’: A dualização do corpo recluso nos romances através das grades. Análise Social, XLII(185), 1055–1079. English version published as (2009). ‘We share everything we can the best way we can’: Sustaining romance across prison walls. Transatlantica, 1. Available at:

Comfort, M. L., Grinstead, O., McCartney, K., Bourgois, P., & Knight, K. (2005). “You can’t do nothin’ in this damn place”: Sex and intimacy among couples with an incarcerated male partner. Journal of Sex Research, 42(1), 3–12. PMCID:  2699406.

Grinstead, O., Faigeles, B., Comfort, M., Seal, D., Nealey-Moore, J., Belcher, L., & Morrow, K. (2005). HIV, STD, and hepatitis risk to primary female partners of men being released from prison. Women and Health, 41(2), 63–80. PMCID: 16219588.

Comfort, M., & Grinstead, O. (2004, April/June). The carceral limb of the public body: Jail detainees, prisoners, and infectious disease. Journal of the International Association of Physicians in AIDS Care, 3(2), 45–48.

Comfort, M. (2003). In the tube at San Quentin: The “secondary prisonization” of women visiting inmates. Journal of Contemporary Ethnography, 32(1), 77–107. Spanish translation published in Argentina as (2010) “En el Tubo de San Quintín: la ‘prisionización secundaria’ de las mujeres que visitan a los reclusos.” Cuadernos de Estudios Sobre Sistema Penal y Derechos Humanos, 1(1), 23–38.

Comfort, M. (2002). ‘Papa’s house’: the prison as domestic and social satellite. Ethnography, 3(4), 467–499. Brazilian translation published as (2003) ‘A casa do papai’: A prisão como satélite doméstico e social. Discursos Sediciosos: Crime, Direito, e Sociedade, 8(13).

Comfort, M., Grinstead, O., Faigeles, B., & Zack, B. (2000). Reducing HIV risk among women visiting their incarcerated male partners. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 27(1), 57–71.

book chapters and Other Publications

Comfort, M. and Williams, T. (2018). "After Life Imprisonment: Reentry in the Era of Mass Incarceration." Contemporary Sociology 47(3): 343-345.

Comfort, Megan and Sufrin, C. (2017). Where punishment and pregnancy meet. Contexts, 16(3): 8-9.

Comfort, M. (2016). How collaborating with a social worker changed my research (and why I can’t wait to do it again). Inequality, Poverty, and Mobility Newsletter (section of the American Sociological Association), 1(3, January), 2–3.

Comfort, M. (2014). Comptes rendus: La famille à l’épreuve de la prison. Sociologie du travail, 56: 515-517. (Book review of a French monograph, text written directly in French.)

Comfort, M. L. (2014). Repercussions of incarceration on close relationships. In D. Hartmann & C. Uggen (Eds.), Crime and the punished (pp. 87–100). New York: W.W. Norton & Company.

Comfort, M. (2014, May 15). No punch line in prison. In, A virtual roundtable on Orange is the New Black, Public Books.

Comfort, M. (2013, December 2). Prison as a refuge. The Chronicle of Higher Education, The Chronicle Review.

Comfort, M., Albizu García, C., Rodriguez, T., & Molina III, C. (2012). HIV risk and prevention for Latinos in jails and prisons. In K. Organista (Ed.), HIV prevention with Latinos: Theory, research, and practice (pp. 205–226). New York: Oxford University Press.

Comfort, M. L. (2010). “I looked at this as a beautiful experience”: Mass incarceration and the secondary prisonization of intimate relationships. In D. Downes, D. Hobbes, & T. Newburn (Eds.), The eternal recurrence of crime and control: Essays in honour of Paul Rock (pp. 245–260). Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.

Comfort, M. (2008). “The best seven years I could’a done”: The reconstruction of imprisonment as rehabilitation by former prisoners and their partners. In P. Carlen (Ed.), Imaginary penalties (pp. 252–274). Cullompton, UK: Willan Publishing.

Comfort, M. L. (2008). Inside and out: Incarceration, HIV/AIDS, and public health in the United States. In C. Pope, R. T. White, & R. Malow (Eds.), HIV/AIDS: Global frontiers in prevention/intervention. New York: Routledge.

Comfort, M. (2006). Book review of Civil Penalties, Social Consequences, Punishment & Society, 8(4), 481–483.

Comfort, M., & Watkins, C. (2005). HIV/AIDS among America’s people of color: Think local, not just global. Focus, 12, Institute for Policy Research, Northwestern University.

Comfort, M. (2004). Toi, moi, et le pénitencier font trois: L’incarcération de masse et la transformation d’une idylle. Le Passant Ordinaire, 50, 38–41.

Comfort, M. (2003, June). Les Etats-Unis malades de leurs prisons. Le Monde Diplomatique, 22–23. Reprinted in Manière de voir 71: Obsessions sécuritaires, October–November 2003, 66–68. English version printed as “United States: Sentenced to Sickness,” August 2003, 4–5. Also translated into Spanish, Portuguese, German, Italian, Czech, and Farsi.

Comfort, M. (2003). Still booming: Prisons in California. ASA Footnotes, 31(9), 1.

Comfort, M. (2000). An officer’s word. Prison Service Journal, 129, 22–24.

Comfort, M. (1999, November/December). Dramatic action: Safe Ground’s unique approach to prisoner rehabilitation. American Jails, 85–87.

Comfort, M. (1998, July). Making connections. Counseling News, 3, 8–9. Reprinted in Prison Service Journal (1999), 122, 23–24.